Domestic Waste

Domestic waste means any nonputrescrible waste consisting of combustible materials, such as paper , cardboard , yard clippings , wood or similar materials generated in dwelling including the real property upon which it is situated , containing four living unite or less. Domestic waste now known as a residual waste. This waste is generated as such household activities like cleaning, cooking, repairing empty containers, packaging huge is use of plastic carry bags. Many times these waste get mixed with biomedical waste from hospitals and clinics. There is no system to segregation of organic, inorganic and recyclable waste at the household level. Door to door collection is rarely practiced community collection bins are poorly managed and are usually no more than open dumps on the roadside.

Domestic Waste Types

There are many kinds of domestic waste types following types are main to describe the domestic waste

Biodegradable Waste

Biodegradable waste can be commonly found in municipal solid waste (sometimes called biodegradable municipal waste, or BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper waste, and biodegradable plastics. Other biodegradable wastes include human waste, manure, sewage, sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste.
For example: – Food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper (can also be recycled).

Recyclable Material

In this we include the that type of waste than can be recycle. For example: – Paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc.

Inert Waste

Inert waste is waste which is neither chemically or biologically reactive and will not decompose. Examples of this are sand, drywall, and concrete. This has particular relevance to landfills as inert waste typically requires lower disposal fees than biodegradable waste or hazardous waste
For example: – Construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris.

Composite Wastes

Composite waste is a heterogeneous mix of trash composed of different types of materials;. Many potential uses are currently being studied for composite waste, including its usage in the making of concrete, with composite waste being part of the ‘aggregate’ required to make concrete.
For example, paper, cloth, plastic, glass, waste clothing, Tetra Packs, waste plastics such as toys.

Toxic Waste

Toxic waste is waste material that can cause death, injury or birth defects to living creatures. It spreads quite easily and can contaminate lakes, rivers, and the atmosphere. The term is often used interchangeably with “hazardous waste”, or discarded material that can pose a long-term risk to health or environment.
medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.

This waste is generated as consequences of household activities such as the cleaning, cooking, repairing empty containers, packaging, huge use of plastic carry bags, huge garbage, and streets dustbins.

Hazardous Effects of Domestic Waste

There are many effects like:-

Environmental Effects

  • Surface water contamination: Waste that end up in water bodies negatively changed the chemical composition of the water. Technically, this is called the water pollution. This will affect all ecosystems existing in the water. It can also cause harm to animals that drink from such polluted water.
  • Soil contamination: Hazardous chemicals that get into the soil can harm the plants when they take up the contamination through their roots. If humans eat plants and animals that have been in contact with such polluted soils, there can be negative impact on their health
  • Pollution: Bad waste management practices can result in land and air pollution and can cause prosperity problems and other adverse health effects as contaminants are absorbed from the lungs into other parts of the body.
  • Leachate: Liquid that forms as water trickles through contaminated area is called leachate. It forms very harmful mixture of chemicals that may result in hazardous substances entering surface water, groundwater soil.

Economical Effects

  • Municipal Wellbeing: Everyone wants to live and visit places that are clean, fresh and healthy. A city with poor sanitation, smelly and with waste matter all over the place do not attract good people, investors and tourists such cities tend to have living standards .
  • Recycling Revenue: Cities that do not invest in recycling and proper waste controls miss out on revenue from recycling. They also miss out on job opportunity that come from recycling, composting and business that work with them.

Human Effects

People are most affected people by the occupational danger (hazard) of waste handling; they suffer from illness like eye problems, respiratory problems, and gastro and skin problems. The persons who wander for collecting the discarded things for selling purpose through also suffer from various health problems like respiratory problem from infection from direct with contaminated materials which lead to headache diarrhea, fever and other health problems.

Benefits of Domestic Waste Segregation

Reducing waste is good for reducing all three of the triple bottom lines of:


  • Conserve space in existing landfills and clean fills and reduce the need for future landfills and clean fills.
  • Reduce pollution and energy consumption associated with the manufacture of new materials.
  • For destructive demolition, reduce other impacts (e.g. noise, dust and traffic) on surrounding properties and streets.

Financial (the project budget and your business)

  • For construction, more efficient use of products means reduced costs of purchasing new materials.
  • Improve work efficiencies through accurate detailed design, a focus on reducing rework, temporary works and mistakes.
  • Reduce waste disposal costs.
  • For demolition, earn revenue from salvaged building parts and recycled materials. Use our REBRI resource routing calculator to calculate whether it is economic to dispose to landfill or recycle a material.
  • Win contracts for projects that specify waste reduction procedures.
  • Improve productivity of staff.

Social/community impact

  • Minimize the effect of hazardous or nuisance wastes on the community by sound management.
  • Innovation and challenges (for example, the training and skills required for deconstruction) can help to attract and retain employees who are keen to develop skills.
  • A high level of client satisfaction could enhance your company’s image and encourage repeat business.
  • Improve site safety through better waste management.
  • For demolition, reduce risks from hazardous materials due to more careful dismantling techniques and correct removal and disposal (e.g. asbestos).

How to Reduce the Domestic Waste

There are three main steps by which we can reduce the domestic waste:-

Reducing your Garbage

  • Use cloth bags instead of plastic: This small measure will greatly reduce the large amount of waste you bring in your house. Using cloth bags isn’t limited to grocery shopping. Take one along when you go shopping for clothes, tools, or any other items you may need.
  • Buy food that has less packaging: If you tend to buy food that comes in boxes wrapped in plastic with individually wrapped serving sizes inside, you are probably producing the more waste than you want to. Look for ways to buy food with minimal packaging especially plastic packaging.
  • Do Vermicomposting: Make dinner instead of heating it up. Takeout food and microwaveable dinners require a lot of packaging, and it all just goes in trash. If definitely takes more time, but consider replacing some of your instant meals with homemade creations.
  • Reduce your paper usage: Try to reduce the paper usage because it make to much domestic waste and difficult to manage it and if the option available that can reduce your paper usage than you must use it.

Reusing and Recycling

  • Donate items when it possible: If you have old clothing, electronics or other items you want but are still in decent shape, donate them instead of throwing them out in the trash. Old clothes and fabric scraps can be donated to fabric recycling facility.
  • Reuse containers: Durable containers can be reused a number of times before they need to go out with the garbage and recycling. Bottles, boxes and bags can all serve a second purpose if you know how use them.
  • Follow the city recycling policies: You must be following the city cleanness and recycling polices and follows them. There are separate garbage collator are available then we have to throw the waste in proper garbage collector
  • Dispose of trash and hazardous waste properly: There are some household items that can’t be recycled or reused. These items have to be thrown out with the trash or disposed of at a hazardous waste facility. Try to reduce your consumption of the following items, and when you do use them, dispose of them according to your city’s laws:
    1. Batteries
    2. Paint
    3. TVs, computers, and other electronics
    4. Light bulbs


Save your food scraps and yard cutting from the trash

Food scraps and yard cutting don’t need to be thrown out. Instead, you can compost them and turn them into rich, nutritious soil that can be used to nourish your garden-or donated to someone else who will be able to use it for theirs. There are many ways to compost; some compost mixtures allow for items like meat and dairy to be included, while others are strictly for fruit and vegetables. To start basic compost pile save these items:

  • Green items, which break down quickly, like raw vegetable peelings , coffee grounds, tea bags, grass cuttings, leaves
  • Brown items, which break down slowly, like sticks and branches, paper, cardboard, eggshells, sawdust.

Create a Compost Site

Select an area in a sunny or partially shaded spot in your yard for your compost site. Ideally you’ll compost directly over dirt or grass, but if you don’t have a large yard area, you can compost a concrete patio. Here are a few different ways you can structure your compost site:

  • Make a compost pile. This is the simplest way to compost. All you have to do is make a pile in your yard. It should be located well away from your house, since composting attracts mice and insects.
  • Make a compost box. You can construct a box made to the exact dimensions that suit your needs.

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